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Sunday, May 15, 2011

Kinds of Accounting System Used in Nepal

  1. Shyaha: Shyaha is like as original records of the transactions. It can be compared with journal voucher of double entry system. Shyaha was useful to record government expenditures and incomes. Shyaha is prepared in English alphabet "T". A leaf was folded in 16, 24, 32 or 36 creases as per requirement of the office to record the different heads of expenses and revenues. On the right hand side of a Shyaha, all the expenses were recorded and all revenues on the left-hand side. At the close of the day, both sides of Shyaha are totaled and underlined which is called 'Terij'. Again, the grand total is found by adding to the total amount up to the previous day with current day's amount. It is called 'Berij'. A Shyaha was either closed at the end of each month or at the end of the fiscal year. Shyaha could be divided into following further three types;
  • Nagadi Shyaha - prepared for cash transaction.
  • Jinsi Shyaha - prepared for properties.
  • Dharauti Shyaha - prepared to record the amount deposited by public.
2. Awarje: Awarje was another important book maintained under Shyaha Srestha Pranali. It was like ledger kept under double entry system. In this book, all the transactions were classified under different heads of revenues and expenditures. It was prepared on the basis of Shyaha. Awarje had the following categories:
  • Income Awarje: It was prepared to record and classify the government revenues. Income Awarje were further classified into Regular Income Awarje and Irregular Income Awarje.
  • Binjalik Awarje: It recorded and classified the government expenditures.
3. Dhapot: Dhapot can be compared with modern balance sheet. It presented summary of government financial position of a certain period. There were the following three types of Dhapot used in the Shyaha Srestha Pranali.
  • Job End Dhapot: It was that kind of Dhapot which was prepared at the end of job or after the completion of project work.
  • Month End Dhapot: It was prepared at the end of each month.
  • Year End Dhapot: If the Dhapot was prepared at end of each fiscal year, it was called Year End Dhapot.

Kinds of Accounting System Used in Nepal

  1. Wasil Banki Srestha Pranali: This is a simple book or statement of recording of government revenue and expenditure. It was suitable to those offices which were established for short period or which had a small number of financial transactions. It was based on single entry system where the revenues were recorded on one side of the page and expenditures on the other side. Therefore, it was easy to find the total amount of expenditures and incomes. Under this system, books are closed either at the end of the fiscal year or at the completion of work. This system was failed to analyze the transactions into a number of heads.
  2. Shyaha Srestha Pranali: In the historical development of accounting in Nepal, Shyaha Sresta Pranali is an important system, which was found by Kharidar Gunawanta in about 1936 B.S. It was more systematic than Wasil Banki System. Under this system, both expenditures and revenues could be recorded on the same leaf and their total and balances also could be shown on the same leaf when required.

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